Some basics of Data Visualization.

Let’s say there are two people Sam and Matt and they want to communicate with each other and if they want to communicate with each other than they need to a common than the neat no common language and both of them need to also follow a certain set of grammatical rules to speak with each other so let’s say if I make a statement such as I like ice cream then it would make complete sense because it follows the Associated grammatical rules but on the other hand if I make a statement such as like ice cream I then it will make no sense at all because it does not follow any grammatical rules now when we talk about grammar let’s actually take the English language.

Every word in the English language is associated with something fewer parts of speech so you have different parts of speech such as nouns pronouns adjectives verbs and adverbs and all of these different parts of speech played different roles in making up a complete sentence and when it comes to the grammar of graphics so it basically helps us to divide our plot into different components so you got different components such as aesthetically or geometry layer and so on and when you stack all of these layers together you get your final perfect lot so let’s understand all of these layers properly.

Let’s start with a from the Italia, so data layer is basically the data for which the visualization has to be done so as simple as that and once you choose the data for which the visualization has to be done you head on to the ascetics layer, so this is where you actually map your columns onto different metrics or scales so you have different ascetics such as the x-axis y-axis shape size color and so on so you can map your columns onto all of these ascetics so you have decided your data and then you have also mapped your columns on two different ascetics so once these two are done you can go ahead and decide the type of geometry which you would have built now what do you mean by the type of geometry, so this is where you actually decide the type of plot.

You can have different plots as a histogram bar plot scatter plot box plot and so on, so the data layer is a tickler and the geometry layer form the core components of the grammar of graphics and once you’re done with these three layers you can go ahead to the facet here now many times it happens that your data set would have a lot of numerical columns and a lot of categorical columns and if you have to plot all of these columns onto a single plot then it might lead to a lot of chaos and this is where you actually want to subset your plot or divide your plot into different subgroups and this is where particular comes in to divide your plot into different subgroups and then finally we have the theme Leo which is basically used to make uh plot even more pretty.

You can add background to your panel and you can also add background to your plot, so these are basically those different components that are present in the grammar of graphics now we’ll head-on with ggplot2 so ggplot2 is completely based on the grammar of graphics so the GUN ggplot2 it actually stands for the grammar of graphics all right so let’s go on to the main part and let’s do some beautiful visualization with the ggplot2 package right guys, so this is our studio and the first task would be to install ggplot2 so I click on packages tab over here and then I click on install so let me just given the name of the package ggplot2 and all you have to do is click on this install button and it’ll be automatically installed and since I already have ggplot2 installed in our studio.

I do not have to do it again now once you install the package you would have to load the package and to load the package you will be using the old library functions you’ll type in the library and then you’ll type in 3G power 2 over here and you have successfully loaded the package right so we’ll be doing all of these visualizations on this car dataset over here which has around 25 odd columns and 205 roots which you’ve got columns such as the number of tours of the car and you know whether the engine is present in the front or back then you’ve got the car length the car worth then you’ve got the mileage of the car and city and manage of the car on a highway and you also got the price of the car so we’ll be making some really beautiful visualizations on this car dataset.

As I’ve told you easy plot 2 is based on the grammar of graphics so we’ll start with the Natalia first know this is the command to we’ll start with ggplot2 material type in plot and as I’ve told you we have to decide to eat a set which has to be mapped on the detail here so since I want to do visualization on top of this car dataset I am basically mapping this car dataset into the data layer, so this is my first task now this helps us to make up bank blank plot, so this is basically the first layer and once this is done I will go ahead and tag the aesthetics layer on top of it.

I’ll put in a comma I’ll use the AE is an attribute which really stands for each setting and I want to understand the distribution of the price column so what I’ll do is I will map this price column on to the X e static so let me just put in price over here so I’ll hit enter right so I have successfully mapped the price column 1 to X he said it and what you see is the price of the car it would theory between around $5,000 to around $40,000 right so we are done with the data layer and also the aesthetics layer and now it’s time to decide on the geometry layer so since it’s a univariate distribution or I really want to understand the price column I’ll go ahead and build a histogram for this and to build a histogram I would need the job histogram function.

There are different job functions over here for each type of geometry should have to build a bar plot you’ve got the job of sure to build a box plot in you’ve got box floor trade and since I would have to build a histogram I’ll just type in job histogram over here and I have successfully well this histogram so let me just zoom this over here right now what we basically understand this so the majority of the car, so there are around 30 or 35 cars whose price would be around ten thousand dollars and there are very few cars so if you take these are bins over here so there are just three cars whose price would be greater than $40,000 right now you can draw these inferences by easily looking at this graph.

If you’re asked to understand the distribution of the price of the cars by just looking at the data set then obviously that wouldn’t have been possible alright now what we’ll do is we’ll add some colors to this plot so let me go ahead and what I’ll do is I’ll add a fill color, so fill color is basically used to add color inside all of these bins.
I’ll type infill inside this job histogram function and color which side we want to have us let’s say dark orchard 3 right through the color which you see over here this is dark orchard 3 now I will also go ahead and add a boundary color and if I want to add a boundary color I will be using the co L attribute and this time the color would be dark orange so I’ll just type in dark orange over here right so I have also added a boundary color.

How can you predict any algorithm that how it works?

I am seeing this I’m seeing this distribution this way I am seeing this kind of overlap and redo this I’m seeing this kind of overlap I am when I use another dimension in the other dimension also I am seeing an overlap but when I put them together in that mathematical space the two Gaussian become linearly separable because of that linear separability now possible amongst the classes on the dimensions look at this dimension this one.

I don’t know what which one is this one is not going to help you separate the orange from the blue doesn’t matter as long as I have this dimension with me which separates orange from the Blues, so one dimension will compensate for the other dimension so overall these weak predictors put together to become strong predictors exactly overall these weak predictors put together to become strong predictors and as you will notice.

When it goes down the line look at let’s look at the data types they we don’t have any nonnumerical columns here everything is numerical keep in mind all algorithms need numerical columns only numerical columns could be categorical or real numbers come down so I am separating the X variables independent variables the target is the cultivator I am splitting data into training set tested I was splitting my data into training septa set you’re of all of you with me on this okay you can actually download the data set from UCI if you wish to this data set you can download from UCI and run the code very good.

I instantiate the Gaussian noise base here there are different variants of Nye base this nine base assumes that the dimensions are Gaussian on each one of these the distributions are Gaussian on each one of the dimension and we meet that requirement very well on all the dimensions the classes are distributed in almost Gaussian ways Gaussian means looks like a normal distribution.

So perfect case for Gaussian I base so I am calling Gaussian evasive there are other variants like multinomial naive Bayes and other my base which you can make use of so I am instantiating the model Here I am going to do the model fit here this is where our law this my base likelihood ratios will be calculated and then I look at this on the training set itself I am doing testing it’s giving me 97% accuracy why am I doing this I’ll tell you in a minute while I can also do this model on the test data.

Here I am running the model on the test data okay and in the matrix, there is a function called classification report which gives me all this matrix recall precision everything in one shot if you are interested you can separately print the matrix also confusion matrix now look at this confusion matrix look at this look at the class level recall any problems he knew it holy any problems from SQL and import Gaussian okay all right now look at this there are three classes here one two three and look at the class level recall what is class level recall accuracy at class levels almost 100% one means hundred ninety five percent hundred percent.

Each one of the classes it’s able to accurately classify with a degree of this is what we wanted in Pisa diabetes it’s giving us a corrosion vine dataset okay I’ll talk about this micro average and all these things down the line we’ll talk about this later right now I just look at this recall matrix I have not told you what precision is and look at the confusion matrix an actual number of the class an in your test record is 23 all of them have been classified as a class.

An actual number of Records for Class B in your test data is 19 it has correctly classified 1812 it has correctly classified 12 you can achieve this kind of score in this model even though the dimensions are overlapping the classes are overlapping and all the dimensions because of some dimensions which come together to make strong predictors so you should understand the difference between Lima disabilities and this in both the cases the classes are overlapping, but there’s one very important critical difference and it’s that difference which is making this right.

You can run the same algorithm base on Pisa diabetes and see what is the score you get there your job here is to select the right attributes that this is you will never get data on a plate when you are doing real-life products this is one big classroom but when you do sit down and do real-life projects you customer sees like to suppose a simple example can you use data science to improve my customer cell CSAT ratings from the current three point five to four point five out of five can you do something using data science to help me improve my customer rating in our technical support these are the kind of requirements which will come to your data will never come to you.

Now your job is to see site rating customer rating for technical support what kind of data you need not desired you have to first guess what kind of data I need your domain expertise will help you if you don’t have it you need to have domain experts so for season rating in customer tech support what kind of data elite can somebody give go back to the past decades okay go back to the past ticket what kind of data you need to go back to the past decades from the past decades you collect what kind of ticket p1 p2 p3 tickets.

I need to find ticket classes then whether the ticket belongs to hardware-software or something else I need those things and various other you will decide what kind of data you need the next challenge will be very will you get the data from some data will be available within the organization some data will be available outside the organization some data will be available with the customer so getting this stakeholder to give the data to us will be such a challenge so all your soft skills will come into play right.

So once the data comes in you have to first establish the reliability of the data what if the tech support department has given you data where the customer is very happy they are not shared with you the dirty data your model will go for it to us those are the challenges which you will face as a data scientist once the data comes to you on this way attributes that you have you will do this analysis using pair plot and other techniques is this column good or that column good which column should I use to define customer satisfaction.

I come from the IT world just like you do many of you do we people have done a lot of projects in Java and C in all these things there the project starts with customer requirements which would turn into technical requirements that we turn into design requirements that turn into code specs coding requirements that turn into unit testing integration testing and finally sub Murcia then we go for acceptance testing in acceptance testing usually it bombs right.

The reason why it bombs is we look at data only in the last stage may we come to acceptance testing we ask customers to give us some data in data science projects your project will start with data the project will end with the data is the core you will be revolving around the data sets say 80% of your effort estimated effort in data science project you will see that when you do the capstone project will go in getting the data.

What type of algorithm is used for Classification?

Let’s start with the session of this model this algorithm is based on the base theorem it is used for classification again it uses probability values to decide which class a test point belongs to this is the only algorithm that gets this term associated with it called naive the term 9 is not a very good thing to be associated with ok, but this algorithm is the only one which gets associated with that very unfortunate because all algorithms are native.

As per this definition, the reason why it’s called naive is this algorithm assumes that all the variables that you’re going to use to build the models of those variables are independent of one another the independence assumption is often violated we already discussed this but then this is true for all the other ones it’s called naive due to the assumption that the features in the data set are mutually independent they don’t interact with each other, but that’s what every algorithm does.

This is the only one which gets the cap the hat whatever they provide but the beauty of this algorithm is what this algorithm says is howsoever weak predictors your features maybe don’t drop them consider them take into account the information given each feature and build your model based on probabilities so it doesn’t advocate you from dropping any of the features how they were significant the overlap might be using them that was this algorithm to understand this algorithm we have to understand what is the probability we have to understand what is joint probability.

We have to understand what is conditional probably three of them so let’s quickly start what is a probability how do you define probabilities okay chances of some event occurring so in the definition you have an event and then you have something called chances what is these chances how do you find that out how do you care to find the chances of something happening so what involves the Experian what is there in the experimental trials and proportion right so if I ask you what is the probability that today it will rain and you might be surprised just a week ago a week or 10 days ago there was news on the web wherein Kerala there were snowfalls I’ve seen that in Kerala Kerala there’s a hill hilly a body called Hill spot moon are right there they had snowfall and the temperature was minus 3 right, so such events can happen.

If I ask you what is the probability that today it’s going to rain at 5 o’clock when it is easy who said you know to take the weather just talk so what you’ve done is you have taken your experience into account on this particular date January is Jan month of January almost middle of January how many times in the past did I see rain that ratio how many times you saw this event of interest versus your records the number of trials this ratio is called frequencies approach to probability.

The probability is a ratio well it’s a ratio of the events of interest to you how many times they have occurred out of the total number of trials how many times they even could have occurred that is the ratio called probability values did you know that probability values can be calculated in another way have you done Poisson distribution in statistics Poisson distribution very convoluted formula there if given the state I am in what is the probability that I’ll be in a different state the next state that is a function of how many ways you can reach that state, okay, so that is another way of finding probability we are going to use the previous def of probability which is based on frequencies ratios okay now that you know.

What is the probability the next thing you need to know is what is joint probability joint probabilities’ probability of multiple events occurring together okay so what is the probability of if I give you a deck of cards and asked you to pull a card out of it and I ask you what is the probability that this card is going to be a red king, so there are two colors red in black 52 cards so 52 cards you have two red King’s hearts and diamonds so the probability of this joint event of the red king is red is one king is one of the probability is two by 52 all right now when you’re pulling out the card somehow you come to know that it is a red card some of you come through it’s a red card now what is the probability this is a red king now you know it’s a red card.

Your scope is now limited to only red cards to by 26 is 1 by 13 so you have taken into account and evidence and information that you captured that it is a red card the moment you get that information you recalibrate your probability of red king that concept of recalibrating your probabilities based on the information that you’re gathering that concept is called Bayes theorem so what Mr. BAE’s insiders start with some probability the default probability values but to keep on recalibrating those probabilities the moment more and more information comes to you however the information we may be howsoever weak the information maybe don’t ignore any information and recolored calibrate your probability that is the philosophy or reasoning behind this Basin basing Mode’s are you okay.

So for this to understand this we need to know probability joint probability and what are conditional probabilities probe what is the probability of King given it’s red we know it’s already red card so now if only the event left to happen is king so what is the probability that this key card will be a king given it’s read that concept which we call two by 26 that concept is called conditional probability.

We started by joint probability what is the probability is a red king because we didn’t have any information it was 2 by 52 the moment we came to know it’s red then we switched to the conditional probability what are the probabilities King given its red right conditional probability is invalid if the joint probability is 0 if the probability of two events occurring together with a 0 we don’t talk about conditional probability what is the probability of drawing a green King there is no green King possibility so don’t even talk about conditional probabilities so we talk about conditional probability only when we have a joint probability greater than 0 all right.

Let’s see how all this was put in to build a model we already discuss what is probably what is joint probability and what is the conditional probability we already discuss this so I’m going to jump these slides this is the model I am sure you have seen this formless looks very familiar oh man you should put it on some kind of board and put it on look so likely we’re going to launch some rocket it’s a pretty easy, ok so what I’m going to do is I’m going to jump all this right back.

I’m going to play with animations this blue box represents all the flight information have captured from my experience all the hundred present flights which have taken I am representing at Bay blue box the dimensions of the box are inconsequential they don’t matter when I look at the past data about the flights which I have taken I noticed that 20% of the time those flight delay 80% of the time the flight was on the shadow in mathematics in school order we would have done this as Venn diagrams ok.

How the philosophy and the fundamentals changes?

The philosophy and the fundamentals don’t really change right so we focus on that so yes you will learn DevOps in-depth right but you will not learn a specific toolchain per se because that can depend on the use case itself and we’d like to cover multiple use cases okay, so Matt is asking in question I am interested in development until our domain dot J’s cloud Java-based if not what prerequisites are required for development Smith.

I’m not sure how you will react to this answer but nothing changes as far as development is concerned, to be honest with you right if you’re writing Java code you will still write Java code is pretty much the same manner whether you are writing it off the frame or on a cloud right it really doesn’t change so I’m not sure what you wanted to understand and it route again to get sample lectures you can just apply for the program.

It doesn’t cost it hardly cards cost anything and you get a content preview for that and based on that content preview you can make your decision whether you know you like the program in such and then you can take the decision Brain does GL the CL helped me to career counseling to find a career path shall I go ahead with cloud computing or big did and analytics Praveen that’s a very open-ended question we definitely counsel you right in fact I would love to happen a one-to-one conversation with you right and understand.

What your background is because I have not seen your CV I don’t know what you have done but yes we definitely help you to understand your own career and you know suggest possible paths okay since the companies are using hybrid clothes that way it is good to know is your hand in a blues what percentage of it of Luis will be covering okay, so that’s a very numeric question Ashish I don’t think it is the question that we should be looking at because if you look at AWS honestly there are more than 100 services right and literally creating a user is a service I am okay just running a machine learning algorithm is a service.

If you were to learn all the hundreds of services on AWS it in the grand scheme of things it really doesn’t mean anything as a Solutions Architect right what you would want to learn are the set of fundamental concepts first and then the set of managed services that you have which you would want to build a solution for or and which you will need as an architect so if you look at the percentage I am really not sure if I have to calculate it manually because AWS adds what about multiple services every other week right.

It’s a very difficult question to answer in absolute number but to give you a data point people have become you know AWS a Solutions Architect both associate and professional you know just by pursuing the course the program right they have not taken any extra training they become architects and some people in fact have all the three associate certifications and even then they find out labs and projects to be insightful and meaningful right, so that’s the kind of testimonial you get and that’s why we believe what the labs and the projects that people are doing are really helpful even for people.

Who already have doubles certifications right so I hope that that helps you with some data Dani will so it’s an online course that will share obviously reading materials industry articles and all of that but we really do not share any hard books right there are no physical books that we share because that’s not what we are doing and what the material that you have in terms of instructional content additional learning resources industry articles and you know white papers and documents proves to be more than sufficient right but if there is a specific resource that you would like and if we have it available within our catalog we’ll be happy to share Vijay you can definitely pursue the program if you’re a hardware and networking guy Ashish.

We do not endorse any specific language but looking at the market trend you know python is something that you would want to learn from we do not teach python as a programming language because we expect you know people at least to you now understand and make sense of one programming language but if you are if you feel that you need to work on you know any programming language Python is something which you can pick up many timings will be conveyed to you once you enroll and the program office will let you know bridge Bihar how long training videos will be available to us right.

They’ll be available to you even after you graduate and you can focus if you know more than a year or two unless they become stale in terms of content right because TEC content becomes outdated and even if you have lifetime access it wouldn’t serve the purpose that you have but for your question, you will have access even after you graduate says and yes in-depth you will learn lambda in-depth fantastic okay so I children has a very good question if I’m stuck on a project on mid of the week will someone help us siren first in projects what you can seek is guidance right.

You cannot seek solutions okay so for labs absolutely in fact people in their class group on WhatsApp you know help each other a lot and more than 70% of learning comes from their own peers but because the project is an evaluated component you will not know you’re not expected to seek help from others or even the program office but as far as understanding the project and expectations are concerned if any teachers to you now reach out to the program office anytime right Praveen I’m coming to that.

Now that we have now that I’ve answered all the questions let me continue because we only have about ten minutes left and let us understand the rest of the specifics of the programs and we can take any final questions, yeah okay, so this is what you will learn in a nutshell right some of you had questions as to what we will learn so without developing into each of the points here these are the categories and buckets of your learning that will happen right, so there are foundational concepts that you need absolutely to become a cloud professional right without these concepts you wouldn’t be able to do your job as effectively as expected right so you learn foundational concepts you learn AWS as you are and I know much more beyond that right.

If there were a group of people who really wanted to you know get a sneak preview of Google cloud although it is not in my curriculum we would be more than happy to felicitate that right through an industry session or a special workshop so it’s not just limited to the curriculum it’s also about as a class what do you guys expect and of course, we can’t accommodate all you know variations of requests, but there is something meaningful that you would really want to learn about we really try our best to accommodate that through special sessions workshops and you know industry sessions as well, of course, you will throughout the program we will stress and emphasize and you know to push you to learn how to build a solution and not just consumer service right our idea is not to teach you ec2 or s3 or you know as your VM.

How to increase your computing capacity?

I’ll be good until this point sheet the intelligence in client-server the processing in client-server was with the server not with the client right your client could be a browser it could be a desktop application and so on which is connected to the Internet but in edge computing what we are saying is the server should not be throttled with all sorts of crossing lodging right, so the server should not have all the responsibility of processing you know some work can also be done on the client machines.

Some intelligence can also be sent to client machines right so to give you an example in point here if you have an IoT infrastructure for example let’s say you have a washing machine or let’s say you have a refrigerator that is IOT enabled right and that refrigerator is connected to your mobile application where you see all the analytics right what has been the temperature of your fridge in the last you know five months what has been the pressure the compressor health and so on right.

Let’s say if you have such a refrigerator now there are two ways to do things here you can either run the analytics algorithm completely on your mobile app okay that is centralized processing the other way to do is you can run some of the processing to save your server capacity your mobile you know processing capacity on the refrigerator sensor itself so if you do some algorithm in processing on the refrigerator sensor that becomes edge computing that is the edge of your iodine Network right and you’re doing some form of computing there which essentially saves your server capacity right.

If you compound this right it results in a lot of saving for a global infrastructure in terms of computing capacity you know the efficiency and so on Sheet does that answer your question just a small example of edge computing okay okay great and for your final question sheet is security concerned in the cloud, yes, but security is concerned everywhere essential right before cloud also security was a concern and it will always be because no matter what the computing infrastructure is there are a lot of people who are trying to hack into your systems and infrastructure right.

It is a concern but to tell you what if 400 billion dollars is being invested in the global market and if the FBI in you is using Amazon Cloud right and the government of India is storing your other data on a cloud right it’s business as usual right so it’s not a massive security threat but it will always be irrespective of whether it is cloud or not yeah okay so Shivani has a question she wanted there’s no difference to be perfectly honest with you right hosting is hosting no matter where you do it yeah so if you host your website on wix.com it is the same for you.

If you host your website on AWS or as you it is the same thing for you you get access to a cPanel you update your files you finalize your DNS you know the numbers these specifications and once the DNS is set up once you have a domain name once everything is done your website is up right so she money there’s no difference to be perfectly honest with you because hosting is always a remote and as far as the machine is a remote for us it means the same thing right Shivani does that clarify your question you are okay so I hope she run is still there I don’t have a response yet but okay let’s move on to the to the final phase of this session and we’ll again take questions towards the end right so what are we saying here these are the skills that an aspiring cloud architect should know and let’s see how to go about it right and then how can we help you before we go into what we offer from great learning and Great Lakes to help you upscale as a cloud architect a piece of advice here from employers around the world is please do not become a paper certified architect right try to become a hands-on architect who knows how to build solutions right.

When you’re approaching certifications they should be done after a significant amount of hands-on experience right certifications should act as a validation of your skills and not as a replacement of your skills right so you know work on AWS working as your work and Google build a couple of projects and you know solutions build a couple of labs and then go and do your certification right you know if you don’t do that you might get a certification but will not serve you well because guess what when you go in and interview right when you get into an interview room your experience takes over right.

Your credentials your degree your diploma you know certificates of appreciation are all there in that folder they are not talking you are the one who is talking about it, so your experience takes over and that’s what you should focus on building right that’s what we do as part of the program that we offer and the postgraduate program and flowered computing that great learning offers in academic collaboration with Great Lakes it’s a six-month executive program it’s a program specially designed for working professionals.

You can pursue it on the weekends while you know also doing your work on the other five days it’s a program designed for people who want to become cloud architects right now certainly all of you might not go and become cloud architects right you might have different priorities and ambitions but what I really mean here is all cloud professionals at mid to senior level should aspire to think like architects right, so that’s what we mean by people wanting to become architects right because if you’re an architect in your mind you will always take a balanced approach you will always take an informed approach to a problem right and you will also be able to say hey for this particular problem we don’t really need the cloud solution right all we need the cloud solution or we need a hybrid cloud solution right.

That’s what we want all of you to become as aspiring professionals this program specifically is is completely online and you will have no work assigned to you for weekdays as well as weekends and there are tons and tons of hands-on work and exposure as part of the six-month program who will you learn from you will learn from people who practice cloud in the industry right and you will finally have this certificate from one of the top institutions of the country which is Great Lakes’ institution Great Lakes Institute of Management and it’s ranked in the top 10 business schools in the country right even by multiple rankings just last year in terms of what would you learn right.

It’s a very holistic program it’s a very comprehensive program so you start with learning you know the fundamentals and absolute in an absolute rigorous fashion you learn AWS and then you have the option of learning either Azure or Google cloud right you can pick either of them you will also work with containers microservices DevOps cloud design patterns and private cloud as of now in OpenStack because you guys are going to think like architects you also need to understand numbers right cloud financials what is the costing of each service that you want to use adoption and migration pattern is hard to create a roadmap for your customers.

Why you need to understand Big Data at a fundamental level?

You also need to understand Big Data at a fundamental level because no matter what application you’re building there is always going to be a lot of data right and your company and your CEOs will want insight from it right and for the developer amongst you like this is completely optional and this is something that you will do after finishing all the requirements of PG BCC we have a special developer track where we teach you to cloud-native development where we teach you serverless in-depth right things like lambda as your functions and so on either in either of the platforms.

There is an optional developer track that you can take as part of PGP cc at no extra cost right, so that’s a summary level think of what you will learn and just a snapshot of you know the kind of people you will learn from this is just an indicator list there are many many more people involved here so you have former chief architects you have cloud solutions architect at Microsoft who is teaching you is yours you have Big Data consultants and experts you have CTO at leading companies right.

I am myself one of the instructors in the program, but this is just an indicative list and there are many many more mentors and faculties involved right in teaching you a typical class profile is quite a diverse right if you if this is average out from all of our past batches you will have classmates from all different types of domains and backgrounds right you’ll have people from consulting people from manufacturing telecom BFS I even healthcare and obviously you know IT and Technology you’ll have all sorts of qualifications as well but most important you will have people from all sorts of experience buckets right, so the average experience is 11 years.

It’s a very informed and experienced class that you will become a part of the right and it’s certainly great to be a part of such a class and if you guys have a question as to what will I do as part of the program you’ll do two simple things learn everything about cloud computing and practice it right you will build a lot of stuff and that is what we evaluate you on there are very few Theory quizzes there are very few MCQs based quizzes right but most of your evaluation is based on the hands-on work that you do and about hands-on work that you will do as part of the program this is just a sample testimonial is an actual email that was sent by one of our students just a few months back right.

The student the learner did a project as part of PGP CCC and he was so excited and happy about his learning outcomes that he took the same project which is essentially a cloud-based Dropbox-like service and implemented it in his own company right in his own department in production not just staging right, so these are the kind of things you will work upon these are the kind of this is the kind of impact you can expect on your career right when you talk about real-life use cases the icing on the cake here is that all of the AWS concepts that you learn or are aw specialization is in collaboration with AWS educate right so it’s further validation of the kind of things that we are doing here.

As part of this relationship as part of our collaboration with AWS educate you get a lot of free resources to learn from but most importantly you also get the global AWS as you get job board we’re not just AWS but they’re partners across the world you know publish jobs which you can apply right and it will have access to this for one year now from the data enrollment we also help you through career support right we share career opportunities with you we do target career drives for our companies for our professionals as well and then we connect both of these parties essentially right.

So just in a few days, we are about to do a career drive with within it with a large Indian service company right without going into the name and we also have our own job board we do hackathons you can also reach us to you know for one to one career mentorship and so on, so this is the link where you can go and check about what we do as far as career support is concerned and I really hope this is all good questions as far as your career and since concern so and if if you have any further questions definitely feel free to reach out to us.

So that’s about it as far as you know the discussion from my side was concerned today and what we can do is we can look at the questions that we have from all of you and I’ll try my best to answer these you are okay, so Arthur has a question what is the question I want to know that what’s the difference in PGP CC and normal aw senator our courses okay a great question out there so at the PGP CC is a very comprehensive and balanced cloud program we are not brand ambassadors of AWS or a short and for your question when you do aw a certification and as your certification, they have a very specific path of learning with one aim of having you clear the certification exam okay.

They do tests you on MCQ based questions on situational questions as well right that has improved recently but they don’t really test you on your hands-on skills right unless you are a very diligent person unless you have practiced multiple solutions by yourself unless you build-out of projects by yourself if you are that proactive it is different but 99% of the people do not do hands-on solution building before taking a certification course right.

That is the problem right they have the certification but when you interview them they are unable to suggest a solution to a customer they are unable to come to connect different pieces of the puzzle and give you one horse a holistic solution right that’s what we focus on in PGP cc and if you look at the curriculum AWS image or are just about two two and a half months of the program right and the program is six months so guess what the rest of the three and a half four months we are also teaching you other important things like I mentioned which are necessary for a cloud architect right cloud financially in this adoption DevOps containers and microservices that is something you do not get in any certifications other does that help you get an idea of why it’s different right it’s about your understanding the solution building approach right more than anything else.

What are content distribution networks?

You might want to use ok that becomes a cloud service service because you are consuming it you are using it by taking from somebody else right but it’s essentially a piece of hardware that you rent from other people you might want to use a folder just a storage folder and you you want to store all the videos that you have right so that becomes something like a s3 object storage you might want to set up your own YouTube kind of website right.

You will need content distribution networks again condensed content distribution networks or CD ends are a service from the cloud right everybody is offering it so all of these things again there are more than hundreds of services that you can you know to take from cloud including the container services or micro services and so on, so there are lot of other tangential technologies which are driving the growth of cloud right and all of these things are being offered on cloud to make it easy and and you know efficient for you.

If you’re a database person if you would you know want to on the work on the future of databases people today are talking about data Lakes right forget databases forget data stores forget data warehouses people are talking about data leaks now essentially a concept which has you know all sort all sorts of data storage techniques right will have a data warehouse you’ll have a data store which is no sequel based you’ll have an R DBMS you’ll have a file storage which is objects store and so on right so all of that is again hosted and offered through cloud if you reckon.
If you’re an infrastructure person if you’re a developer know containers are a revelation for you right they’ve helped everybody knows docker everybody talks about docker and if you’re writing micro services based applications you you’re very likely to deploy them in in docker or other containers and because it becomes complex cloud gives you container orchestration services to help you all the complexity right there are companies today whose only product is a set of API’s right now it’s very difficult to imagine something like this.

You know a few years ago right there’s a company whose only product is a set of API straight a set of functions which other people are consuming, but that’s true today because cloud helps you do that right there is server less there is edge computing this IOT so all of these aspects are really driving and enabling the growth of cloud at a very high pace right so memory you’re talking about cloud you should also be cognizant of all these you know other streams of technologies so ultimately because of all that.

We’ve spoken right cloud professionals are in high demand and if you are really interested in something like cloud you should look forward to going into either of these domains and business buckets without going into the salary numbers here let’s understand a little more about what skills are required and what companies want from you as cloud professionals right like I just said there is much more to cloud than infrastructure it is not only about VM or storage or or a video file that you still remotely or or even remote desktop right these are very old paradigms that people have in their mind right about Klaus cloud is much much broader it is way way beyond than just a BM right.

If you are working on micro services or container based applications if you are okay if you’re doing all of you know things like docker you know DevOps if you want the past platform if you want to do big data as a start-up cloud can help you do that now just to give you a quick example here if any of you watches Netflix right I’m sure everybody knows Netflix if not as a user but at least as a company right, so Netflix is one of the best companies in the world as far as engineering is concerned and they have created amazing pieces of libraries API’s lot of tools for you to use right and micro services as a concept was really driven by Netflix right.

There are more than you know hundreds of micro services no small units or functionalities running together in sync really like a nice musical Orchestra to give you the experience that you have on Netflix right and that’s the reason they can scale up very fast globally right so just give you an example in context here, so the cloud is much more than just a VM yeah and as an aspiring professional you should definitely look forward to learning these skills if you want to become a cloud architect right for a cloud engineer you know cloud governance and cloud security even to a certain extent big data and data bases might not be that relevant for you know early career to mid-career professionals or for mid to senior right if you’re about 678 plus years of experience.

If you want to become an architect really you should have all of these skills as part of your portfolio and not just by theory but also by hands-on practice okay so I see two questions here one Shivani the other from Sheet okay so she Ronnie’s asking why banks are not using cloud why they are using their own data centers Shivani that’s not true first of all banks are using the cloud if you want you can also research about this but I will tell you that areas where banks are not using cloud right.

So banks are using cloud for applications and data which is not sensitive right which is not personally identifiable information pampa right so according to government regulations you cannot use person you cannot store personal information outside national boundaries right outside India outside EU and so on, so banks are using cloud but for things that are not no security sensitive, so money does that answer your question that that’s not entirely true by the way sheet what is edge computing all right.

So I hope you were aware of the client-server architecture that was the craze just about a decade back before cloud came in so Sheet Arya we’ve about declined some architecture the essential request/response thing yeah perfect so if you look at the client-server architecture the the processing the intelligence right and all the business logic got executed on the server right not on the client on the client you usually had you know things from a presentation perspective right the things got rendered and you got the response.

How to work on multiple cloud platforms?

Now offering as well right and for the question of who is using cloud today like I said more than 85% of the companies have been using cloud and not to multiple cloud platforms but if you also look at the right scale 2018 state of the cloud report almost 96 percent of the respondents are using the cloud right in what form and shape that is not really the concern here but what you really want to understand here is how many people are using cloud and the answer is almost everyone.

Let me take a pause here let me see if you have any questions are you are okay so I have I think I have two questions from chat Anya Japanese these are I think real related questions would you mind if we take them in the second half of this session just in a little of time when we talk about specific skills for couriers yes please stay tuned I’ll definitely answer your question, okay Sheet has a question what is an idea to use private cloud over public cloud our societal I’m assuming you’re asking when would you use private cloud instead of public cloud right okay.

So essentially there are two reasons why you would use private cloud right there are multiple use cases of course if you just go to Google and try to search what’s when to use a private cloud you will get multiple use cases, but there are essentially two factors to it one is what kind of business are you in it so for example if you are a bank right you might go for a private cloud set up if you are if you’re a forensics laboratory you can go for a private cloud if you’re a security agency like police like a CBI like an FBI you might want to go for a private cloud shut up.

When businesses are concerned about the nature of the data the security of the information the security of the infrastructure and the control that they want right that’s when the private cloud is essentially used right and also if you want to customize a lot of things according to yourself so for example, if you wanted to create a cloud where you know the type of virtual machines available would be as per your specification right all of them in that case you would go for private cloud so essentially it’s about control and security and customization right if you want all of that to a high degree you would want a private cloud that’s briefly about it Septal does that help you okay.

I already have a thumbs up from you so I’ll take it as a positive thing okay Jain Prakash is asking how do you differentiate between private cloud and public cloud in cloud okay, so that’s already a question which can confuse anybody by the way but yeah good question as far as this point in time is concerned what I will suggest you when you look at a cloud infrastructure to answer your question he should again ask a question who is going to use this cloud right you should ask of who is going to use this cloud infrastructure if the answer to that question is everybody can use and subscribe to this cloud publicly it’s a public cloud right.

If the answer is hey people only in my organization can use this cloud infrastructure that becomes a private cloud it’s not open to everyone yon does that answer your question, in that case, it becomes a private cloud sun Prakash this help you does that answer your question [Music] yes you are right cloud is essentially based on the idea of multiplexing and virtualizing and sharing resources but sharing resources does not make it public you can share the sources within a development team also right which is the closed team yeah.

Sharing a free source and resource pooling is a generic computing concept and it happens everywhere, but the public cloud is essentially about who can subscribe to your cloud services right is it the public is it individual or is it anybody if that is true then it becomes public cloud ok Shiva is asking please tell me about virtualization Shiva a good question what I will do is I will quickly tell you about what virtualization is and we’ll keep it limited in the context of this particular session right because it’s a technical topic and it might you know the kind of confuse a lot of people, so virtualization is essentially about consolidating your hardware right as well as software so if you look at a single operating system just to give you an example right.

Let’s say you have Windows on your laptop or desktop and if you wanted to use Linux right the first approach and the first brute-force approach is to make two partitions in your hard drive and install Windows and Linux as well right and you log in separately to both of them right so when you are using Windows you can’t access Linux files when you’re using Linux you can’t access Windows files and vice-versa now virtualization is a technology which will help you create a Linux machine within the windows’ ecosystem right without create Hard well partitions essentially at a fundamental level and also allowing you to switch between Linux and Windows right at the same time without rebooting.

So that is OS virtualization operating system virtualization and you also have hardware virtualization so essentially it’s about sharing software or Hardware resources between multiple tenants right multiple uses Shivani does that help you at a high level right we’ll need more time to understand yeah yeah so just as a basic definition I think it helps you okay great all right so let’s okay since the questions are all done.

Let’s move on with the next slide right so continuing our discussion here as I was saying the growth in the cloud is not just happening globally it’s also happening in India now the numbers here are a little dated but to give you a sense of the trend if you look at the green sections here now the green sections represent traditional data centers right and traditional data centers are the ones where virtualization is not used right where cloud-based technologies are not used and the green will keep reducing right it has gone much further again and both the Blues that you see here are either public or private subsystem, so the message here is right.

There are a lot of traditional data centers in the world more so in India and we need to transform all of these data centers from traditional set up to a virtualized and cloud-based data center-right, so that is also propelling the growth as far as cloud is concerned the adoption trend again is very very strong you know more than 90 percent of the folks are using cloud and some of the other forms now we’ve spoken enough about the market itself.

We’ve spoken about a lot of numbers you know what is the trend how many people are using flower how many companies are using cloud and so on let’s take a to from here and talk about what about the technical aspects of you know what what’s driving cloud so if you thought about cloud as a place where you can just get virtual machines or some extra storage like Dropbox or something else where you’re right but if that is all you think about the cloud that’s a very narrow perspective right today cloud is about more than hundreds of services right when I say service it is essentially an information technology concept and item that you want to use so, for example, a hard drive.

What matters for your processor speed?

It’s mind-boggling like 6 GB of RAM it wasn’t even there in a laptop right 10 years ago you have it in a smartphone today right so and so broadband the hardware evolution of the telecom sector the software evolution right there are millions of developers today writing code you know and it only increases every day so all of this essentially has made ID a little democratic right so until about you know many years ago.

Let’s say just before a decade IT was a blocker right IT was a headache in a lot of sense where companies were not IT companies themselves right so for banks for retail stores for shopping malls for hospitals for government organizations for schools and universities for payment companies, for example, IT is really a none has always been right and will always be an enabling service and enabling function a supporting function right.

So for banks of course if you imagine it today’s it’s a little difficult to relate to it if you do everything online but for banks, IT is really an enabling function right that’s not their core business okay so if they have 1,000 servers for example if SBI tomorrow has and comes to you and say hey I am going to charge you 1,000 rupees every month extra from your account balance because I have 1 million servers to service you guess what you will not be as amused with that you’re like hey I don’t care.

How many servers you have I just want to access my account and to banking right, so companies today have evolved they understand that IT is an enabling function and that they should not you know get into the hassles of doing a lot of things, ok so they are spending less time in looking at the servers and in trying to fight with them trying to keep them up all the time because you do not get points for using X number of servers right you only get points and business for servicing your users right, so that’s why companies are excited about the cloud because cloud takes away all of this headache you know all of this hassle of both hardware and software and lets you focus on what your business is right.

What’s your core concern these are just some of you know some of the examples some of you know new-age companies which have used cloud at a global scale right they’ve grown very fast they are the companies who’ve done their IPOs you know fundraises very quickly who’s served you know millions of customers globally across geographies and such a hyper-growth environment such a list of hyper-growth startups is not possible when you have IT which is a barrier right remember capital expenditure for a small business.

If you had to buy 100 servers tomorrow as a new company guess what it’s a lot of costs right even if you say you know 2 lakh rupees per server it’s a lot of money that you need to put upfront unlike what it’s loud off you see right as a utility model you use these 200 servers to speed the bill in and go home right you can come back and again take those machines now so these are just some of the examples where this kind of these have grown really fast and that’s why people are excited about the cloud so tomorrow if you are you know an aspiring entrepreneur if you have a startup idea.

If you think that ID is something that I really need to worry about well a cloud can help you there right and it depends on certain use cases but it’s a lot of help that businesses get out of cloud computing a few numbers here to convince you further about the case of cloud computing so if you look at really the second row here the middle row are all I want to show here as three boxes so if you look at the first two boxes in the middle row it’s certain it’s telling you what are the top two players I’m sure most of you will be aware of this that AWS and Microsoft Azure are at the top to market leaders as far as cloud computing is concerned and the third thing that.

I want to show you is the top right box with it says 85% of companies are using multiple clouds so almost all the companies are using more than one cloud platform the top two major players are AWS and Shod and if you were to become a cloud professional you should definitely learn AWS and it should definitely also look forward to learning ashore right especially if you’re a Windows ecosystem person especially if you have windows bag non-professional right if you’re a.net developer.

If you have been a Windows person throughout as you are something that you should have definitely done but again it is just a point where Microsoft has evolved a lot especially under Satya Nadella and this is equally good for Linux as AWS is right in a lot of sense, so azure is not just about Windows that’s a myth as you is also about Linux and all kinds of things that you can do on AWS so as you are in AWS are the top two things you should aspire to learn as far as an aspiring cloud professional the growth in the ecosystem is not just happening globally it’s also happening in India as well right.

If you look at this over the last four years and also projected in the next year the trend is quite a linear right it’s growing every year and if you look at 2020 it’s almost three times the growth right, so the growth is also happening in India not just globally if you talk about what kind of cloud people are using there are different ways to deploy a cloud so when you say so that CV is essentially right, so there’s public cloud there is private cloud and there is the hybrid cloud right it’s a public cloud is a cloud infrastructure which is open to the public, not just companies right.

For example, when you say AWS as your Google Cloud etc are public cloud platforms even an individual can go and sign up for you know a Google cloud account or azure or AWS account and start using all of their services right that’s public cloud open to everyone on the other hand private cloud is meant for specific enterprises meant for you either your own company your customer’s company and is a closed ecosystem right, so the private cloud is meant for individual enterprises public cloud is meant for everyone having said that when you create something for yourself on the public cloud.

It’s not that it is public to everyone right it is your resource nobody else can access it so in terms of security public cloud is equally good right if not more than compared to the private cloud but without going into the security aspect and a lot of other things public cloud adoption is quite a high right and again if you see a double use as your other top two players Google is really catching up fast if you look at last year’s Magic Quadrant from Gartner Google Cloud is the third leader right according to Gartner.

It’s really the third leader essentially and my personal you know feel about Google cloud is that it will really ramp up fast because of all the basics being correct right, so these are the top three platforms and then you’re searching certainly watch out for google cloud because of their you know strong platform and their focus on enterprises right and giving more of a packaged approach to all the services an IBM VMware our oracle are more active in the private cloud space, but IBM certainly has a public cloud.

What is cloud engineer?

If you’re aspiring to become a cloud architect or a cloud engineer or even a cloud manager right and we’ll finally look at how great learning and retakes together can help you in getting up to that particular no aspired position or your next career transition right so I hope that that the agenda becomes a little clearer if you have any questions to start with I’m happy to answer now do you guys any of you have questions as yet okay so no questions now all right let’s start in that case.

If you look at the first slide here really don’t have a title slide right I don’t have a slide just telling you the name of this particular session and so on just to keep it really simple and straightforward and to drag the point with what the market leaders are saying right so what people like phones and Gartner and even the best of the companies write Microsoft Amazon Google Oracle Alibaba everybody’s saying the future is cloud right.

Now when you say the future is cloud it’s really not entirely true because the present is also cloud right that’s what I mean not just the future the present also is cloud and as you will see in the following slides more than 90% of organizations with small-large and medium are using cloud and some of the other form and not just organizations it’s also individuals individual professionals students at universities everybody is literally using cloud and some of the other form right.

What are people telling here so it’s a four hundred billion-plus dollar market, so globally that’s a huge market to be a part of as a professional as a company it also shows you the amount of investment that people are doing as far as cloud is concerned almost over 80 80 percent of the workloads of enterprise workloads will be sent to cloud by next year right it’s already 2019 so almost all the workloads in enterprises are going to cloud right they already are and they will continue to do so more than 80 percent of companies have a multi-cloud strategy forget using one cloud right.

What we are saying here is four out of every fifth company is using more than one cloud platform right it’s not just one cloud platform, so the approach has matured the number of options has grown the number of use cases people need to use has grown over time and the number of professionals because of all these reasons the number of professionals that companies need will continue to grow right in the next three four-five years now in India specifically the cloud services market has over four billion dollars right.

This will increase definitely with the adoption of all kinds of services that you have on the cloud including advanced services like IoT machine learning AI etc right some of you might even be surprised that even things like satellite imaging will come as a service and cloud right very recently in fact if you read about you know what ADA braces up to recently even if you want the satellite out there to grab some images or do some weather forecasting for yourself even as an individual you can go and get a cloud service for that right.

So that’s really fascinating with what L options do we have on the cloud right so I hope this sets the initial understanding and context of how exciting and how broad and promising this cloud market has become and it is certainly a great time for you if you really interest it in something that’s cloud to become a cloud professional right now let’s understand what is stored in the first place okay there are a lot of definitions if you go to Wikipedia there’s a definition if you go to n is T which is an us-based standards organization there’s another definition but to put it in an in a layman’s term right cloud is essentially a different way of how you consume your IT services right.

Everything else remains the same in principle right when I say that you still have computed you still have you know microprocessors you have storage Ram hard drives network cable subnet all of that stuff as far as computer computers are concerned computing and its science is concerned and as far as programming is concerned all of that is same right so if you’re an infrastructure person a few things will change right.

How you do your job will also change when you talk about cloud but what you want to as he really doesn’t change that much right you still want reliability you still want efficiency you still want scalability still want a backup server you still want you to know geolocation and being close to the customer and all of that right, so the cloud is really a different way to use information technology and its services right so both hardware and software right so when you talk about cloud it’s really a utility model, okay it’s a leased based model it’s a model where you can consume something which is created by somebody else right so, for example, this is very clear examples you can think about electricity right.

If you want electricity tomorrow in a house that you recently purchased you don’t have to set up a power station for that right you can simply apply for a connection and start consuming electricity similarly if you have a new electronic device two more if you buy a new refrigerator or you know even an electric car for example again you don’t have to set up a power station you can simply plug that refrigerator into a socket which essentially is a plug-and-play model and you can start consuming electricity.

Now take this analogy into computing and think about if you wanted an extra machine is there a plug-and-play model right can you just call up somebody can you just go to a website write a digital socket in that case and just plug and say hey I want an extra computer can you give it to me for like two days I want to run an experiment right, so that’s what cloud is you need something either hardware or software right you get it for X amount of time it could be a year it could be five years it could be you know five hours you use it and then you give it back to the owner right.

For example, if you’re not consuming electricity somebody else will right so if you’re not using a cloud resource, of course, somebody else will unless you have reserved it okay, so that’s in very simple terms that’s what cloud essentially is it’s a utility model of computing it’s a model of computing where you can get services both hardware and software from a service provider which we call cloud provider right so it’s the least based model, of course, there are a lot of other aspects to it without going into that I just wanted to you know kind of help you understand what cloud is in very simple terms.

Now, what our company is doing with cloud why is it so famous if you look at the last two decades there have been a lot of revolutions one is the hardware evolution right if you look at the networking equipment’s if you look at the switches and routers that you have if you look at the telecom boom if you look at the data speeds that you have now if you look at the satellite evolution the number of satellites India’s launching if we look at the cost of a hard drive right that has gone way cheaper if you look at the amount of RAM storage that you have in your smartphones.